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Central Banks

What is Their Purpose

Central banks are vigilant towards the pecuniary policy in their respective commonwealths. When the economy of a nation faces challenges, the central bank usually stops in to steady the economy. Central banks of course accomplish this in a number of ways. Central banks hold responsibility for commanding the pecuniary policy of their nations. This entails manipulation of the currency supply in that nation to accomplish its economical ends.

However, of an economical viewpoint, the scarceness of currency does not just impress our ability to purchase or not to purchase. Divisors such as market growth or decline, rates of unemployment and inflations all play a role in the ready access of money. Ways of moderating the provision of currency, employed by central banks, can vary by nation, contingent upon the magnates vested in the central banks. In the United States, it is the Federal Reserve charged with such take and they accomplish the manipulation of currency supply in three ways.

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They are:
  • Giving deposit institutions reserve and capital requirements

  • The adjustment of interest rates

  • Regulation open market processes


  • More often than not, delegation to banks requires a percentage of deposits to remain in their vaults at all times. This refers to the "reserve requirement”. The Federal Reserve determines the reserve requirement for all banks in the United States. By lessening reserve requirements, more currency is uncommitted and freed up for banks to lend, thereby increasing the currency supply in the market.

    The command central banks have over interest rates can vary dramatically by nation as well. In the United States, the Federal Reserve does not determine the interest rate a consumer would pay for a loan. However, the Federal Reserve can indeed affect the average consumer with it policies. Viewed from an economical position, interest rates refer to the "price of currency”. Therefore, diminishing interest rates brings down the cost of currency and pumps more money into the economic system. Although aligning reserve requirements and interest rates determine efficiency in boosting the currency supply, the results often take a while to kick in. This is when the importance of how the open market operates presents its evidence.

    Open market operations involve the purchase and selling of various financials -- ordinarily governmental agency securities. Central banks diminish currency in circulation, by selling and stockpiling money collected and raises the money in circulation by purchasing such securities. The deployment of such tactics ensures a nation’s economy is strong and can sustain.

    Listing of the Worlds Major Central Banks

    People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Bank of Algeria
    Argentine Republic[ Central Bank of Argentina
    Commonwealth of Australia Reserve Bank of Australia
    Republic of Austria Austrian National Bank
    Kingdom of Bahrain Central Bank of Bahrain
    Kingdom of Belgium National Bank of Belgium
    Bermuda Bermuda Monetary Authority
    Plurinational State of Bolivia Central Bank of Bolivia
    Federative Republic of Brazil Central Bank of Brazil
    Republic of Bulgaria Bulgarian National Bank
    Canada Bank of Canada - Banque du Canada
    Republic of Chile Central Bank of Chile
    China The People's Bank of China
    Republic of Colombia Bank of the Republic
    Republic of Costa Rica Central Bank of Costa Rica
    Republic of Cuba Central Bank of Cuba
    Czech Republic Czech National Bank
    Kingdom of Denmark National Bank of Denmark
    Dominican Republic Central Bank of the Dominican Republic
    Eastern Caribbean Eastern Caribbean Central Bank
    Republic of Ecuador Central Bank of Ecuador
    Arab Republic of Egypt Central Bank of Egypt
    European Union European Central Bank
    Republic of Finland Bank of Finland
    French Republic Bank of France
    Georgia National Bank of Georgia
    Federal Republic of Germany Deutsche Bundesbank
    Greece Hellenic Republic Bank of Greece
    Republic of Guatemala Bank of Guatemala
    Republic of Honduras Central Bank of Honduras
    Hong Kong Hong Kong Monetary Authority
    Republic of Hungary Magyar Nemzeti Bank
    Republic of Iceland Central Bank of Iceland
    Republic of India Reserve Bank of India
    Republic of Indonesia Bank Indonesia
    Republic of Iraq Central Bank of Iraq
    Ireland Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland
    State of Israel Bank of Israel
    Italian Republic Bank of Italy
    Jamaica Bank of Jamaica
    Japan Bank of Japan
    Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Central Bank of Jordan
    Republic of Korea Bank of Korea
    State of Kuwait Central Bank of Kuwait
    Republic of Lebanon Central Bank of Lebanon
    Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Central Bank of Libya
    Republic of Lithuania Bank of Lithuania
    Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Central Bank of Luxembourg
    Macao Monetary Authority of Macao
    Republic of Madagascar Central Bank of Madagascar
    Federation of Malaysia Central Bank of Malaysia
    United Mexican States Bank of Mexico
    Mongolia Bank of Mongolia
    Kingdom of Morocco Bank of Morocco
    Kingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands Bank
    New Zealand Reserve Bank of New Zealand
    Republic of Nicaragua Central Bank of Nicaragua
    Kingdom of Norway Central Bank of Norway
    Sultanate of Oman Central Bank of Oman
    Islamic Republic of Pakistan State Bank of Pakistan
    Republic of Paraguay Central Bank of Paraguay
    Republic of Peru Central Reserve Bank of Peru
    Republic of the Philippines Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
    Republic of Poland National Bank of Poland
    Portuguese Republic Bank of Portugal
    State of Qatar Qatar Central Bank
    Romania National Bank of Romania
    Russian Federation Central Bank of Russia
    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
    Republic of Singapore Monetary Authority of Singapore
    Republic of Slovenia Bank of Slovenia
    Republic of South Africa South African Reserve Bank
    Kingdom of Spain Bank of Spain
    Kingdom of Sweden Sveriges Riksbank
    Swiss Confederation Swiss National Bank
    Republic of Tajikistan National Bank of Tajikistan
    Kingdom of Thailand Bank of Thailand
    Republic of Turkey Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
    Ukraine National Bank of Ukraine
    United Arab Emirates Central Bank of United Arab Emirates
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Bank of England
    United States of America Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Washington)
    Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Central Bank of Venezuela
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam The State Bank of Vietnam